05 Cultural-historical heritage on the shore and in the sea
Klasifikacija prema RKD
Cultural landscape Cultural-historical unity
Immovable cultural heritage Material cultural property
Medieval Rab was a significant maritime centre. It was located at the crossroads of two trade routes of great importance for the medieval economy of Europe and the Mediterranean. The first route led from Constantinople to Venice and vice versa, and the second route connected major Italian economic centres and ports with Hungary via nearby Senj and the interior of Croatia. In the 13th century, local, Venetian and other merchants had their warehouses in Rab harbour, where they stored silk and wax alongside food and spices. The medieval Rab harbour was different from today’s. It was located at the site of what is now Municipium Arba Square, between the Prince’s Palace and a cliff which is no longer visible. In the late Middle Ages, a castle with a ravelin was built on it to defend the harbour entrance. Today’s square was created by filling in the harbour. The main unloading area was a large pier in front of the Prince’s Palace. In the 1470s, the people of Rab built an important facility for the smooth development of maritime affairs – a quarantine station. It was located in the cove of St Euphemia at the foot of Komrčar Hill near the saltworks of St Mary (so named because they belonged to Rab’s St Mary’s Cathedral). At the end of the 19th century, the public sea baths and climatic spa facility were established at the site of the quarantine station.
Na mjestu današnjeg grada Raba, Rimljani su u drugom stoljeću prije Krista izgradili postaju za brodove. Car Oktavijan August izgradio je prve zidine i kule te je Rab postao rimski municipij. Nakon pada Zapadnog rimskog carstva, Rab je bio dio bizantske teme Dalmacije u 8. stoljeću. Nakon prodaje Dalmacije Veneciji 1409, Rab se također predao Veneciji, pod kojom ostaje sve do 1797. Grad Rab koji je smješten na izduženom poluotoku, bio je okružen jedinstvenim zidinama s nekoliko kula. U vrijeme Kraljevine Jugoslavije, porušeni su i dijelovi polukružnog bastiona, koji je prije branio ulaz u luku. Luka Rab sastoji se od vanjskog i unutrašnjeg dijela. Međusobno ih razdvaja lukobran. Vanjska luka također ima lukobran koji ju štiti od vjetrova, a služi i kao pristanište za brodove obalne plovidbe. Dubine vanjske luke iznose od 15 do 18 m. Pored glavne luke grada Raba, otok Rab ima i dva važna trajektna pristaništa, Mišnjak koji ga spaja s Jablancem i Lopar koji ga spaja s otokom Krkom.